Wednesday, 14 September 2022

Determination of Aflatoxin Levels and Prevalence of Fungal Flora of Cwande Condiments Sold in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Ahmad, A.

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

Keta, J.N.

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

Dharmendra Singh

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: abdulrahmanahmad434@gmail.com

Abstract

Aflatoxins are group of secondary metabolites produced by certain mold species which are dangerous to humans and animals. Cwande is a local condiment that is used to add flavor to the food, it get infected with fungi and aflatoxins as a result of improper processing and storage procedures. This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin levels in Cwande condiments sold in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria, as well as the prevalence of fungal flora. Twenty (20) dried processed samples from four different collection points in Zuru central market were chosen at random and placed in brand-new polythene bags. Fungi were isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar by Standard Dilution Plate method. Aflatoxin was determined using the ELISA method, which is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Five fungal species were isolated and identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium Oxysporum. Fungal species were present in varying degrees, from 9.09% to 39.39%. Aflatoxins varied from 2.539 to 2.546 in all samples. These results led to the discovery that the commercially available Cwande in the Zuru central market was tainted with various fungal species, including aflatoxigenic ones. All of the samples tested positive for aflatoxin according to the analysis, however none of them had levels that exceeded the 10g/kg maximum permissible limit for humans stipulated by the EU and NAFDAC. More research should be conducted in order to determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional components of the regional condiment (Cwande).

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Cwande, Fungal flora, Nigeria, Zuru LGA

Conflicts of interest: None
Supporting agencies: None

Received 05.07.2022; Revised 06.09.2022; Accepted 14.09.2022

Cite This Article: Ahmad, A., Keta, J.N. & Singh, D. (2022).  Determination of Aflatoxin Levels and Prevalence of Fungal Flora of Cwande Condiments Sold in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management, 1(4), 371-375. 


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Thursday, 8 September 2022

Impacts of Climate Change in Bangladesh and its Consequences on Public Health

Golam Kibria*

Centre for Environment and Climate Change Research (CECCR), Bangladesh

Hashinur Rahman Pavel

Centre for Environment and Climate Change Research (CECCR), Bangladesh

Md. Rashed Miah

Centre for Environment and Climate Change Research (CECCR), Bangladesh

Md. Raisul Islam

Centre for Environment and Climate Change Research (CECCR), Bangladesh

*Corresponding author: golam_kibria69@yahoo.com

Abstract

Climate change can affect many aspects of our lives, for example, health and environment, access to natural resources, safety and security, agriculture and food production. Health issues are the most crucial and burning difficulties for human beings in all of these aspects. The scope of this review considered commonly used methodologies for climate change-induced diseases research and assessment of climate-induced health problems throughout Bangladesh. Surveys, key informant interviews (KII), focus group discussion (FGD), registered hospital visit patient data as well as and other similar methodologies are found popular in this research area. Negligible studies are found that used experimental method including laboratory analysis and registered hospital visit of patient information. Very few experimental studies observed water sample tests and human health-related samples like urine and blood pressure. People living in the coastal part has climate-induced crisis like salinity intrusion, cyclone, storm surge that lead to health problems like diarrhea, cholera, skin diseases, typhoid, chicken pox. While people living in both drought-prone and flood prone areas have health problems like diarrhea, cholera, fever, and skin diseases. People living in the urban and the hilly regions have climate induced crisis of increased temperature and they suffer from vector-borne diseases. Waterborne communicable diseases are the most common climate-induced diseases found in this review. Waterborne non-communicable diseases like hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and gynecological problems during pregnancy are common and women suffers a lot. Blood pressure and related cardiovascular diseases, jaundice, and respiratory issues are also getting worse day by day which has strong connection with climate change effects like temperature, rainfall and salinity.

Keywords: Climate-induced, Communicable, Health, Salinity, Vector-borne, Waterborne

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.48002

Conflicts of interest: None
Supporting agencies: None

Received 30.06.2022; Revised 19.08.2022; Accepted 27.08.2022

Cite This Article: Kibria, G., Pavel, H.R., Miah, M.R., & Islam, M.R. (2022). Impacts of Climate Change in Bangladesh and its Consequences on Public Health. Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management, 1(3), 359-370. doi: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.48002

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© The Author(s) 2022. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

Interannual Variability of Winter Rainfall in Upper Myanmar

Kyaw Than Oo

Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
Aviation Weather Services, Myanmar Air Force, Myanmar

*Corresponding author: kyawthanoo34@outlook.com

Abstract

Upper Myanmar region, roughly located between 21˚00' N and 28˚30' N latitude and 92˚ 10' E and 101˚ 11' E longitude, is the place where the winter cold season contributes ~2% of the annual total rainfall. The rainfall associated with Western disturbances is small in quantum but veritably important for the cold season crops, maintaining the glaciers over the Putao region, hydropower generation for the whole country and hazard of Jade mining of the Upper Myanmar area. This study aims to find interannual variability and related ocean-atmospheric pattern link with Upper Myanmar cold season rainfall by using great-resolution reanalysis data (ERA5) during 1990-2020. Correlation analysis to test the validation of ERA5 gridded data with the observed data from 25 stations across Myanmar, showed a strong correlation value in the same period that enough reliable for best analysis results. An anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation persists over the southern part of the Bay of Bengal and South China sea during wet (dry) years. Also, the warming over the Indian Ocean and the cooling over the Tibetan plateau region correspond to south-north transport of moisture, ensuing in positive rainfall anomalies over the study region during winter. The wide patches of strong negative (positive) correlation are found over the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea (MED), Arabian Sea (ARS), and Red Sea (RED) during wet (dry) years. The link implies that NPO, SPO, and MED have an impact on the winter rainfall inter-annual variability. In addition, the cooling (warming) over the Indochina and western Pacific regions influences the Hadley and Walker circulation bringing above (below) normal rainfall, respectively, over Upper Myanmar. The reply of indices (PO, MED, NINO3.4, IOD, and WDs) on winter rainfall, necessary to further investigation. The complete analysis of winter rainfall aids in the understanding of past extreme events as well as the forecasting and monitoring of drought and floods in Upper Myanmar.

Keywords: Myanmar rainfall, Sea surface temperature, Western disturbances, Winter rainfall 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.48001

Conflicts of interest: None
Supporting agencies: None

Received 20.06.2022; Revised 19.08.2022; Accepted 29.08.2022

Cite This Article: Oo, K.T. (2022).  Interannual Variability of Winter Rainfall in Upper Myanmar. Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management, 1(3), 344-358. doi: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.48001

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© The Author(s) 2022. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

Typha angustifolia L. Grass Hindering against Agricultural Productivity in Aliero River, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Zubairu S. Aliero

Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Nigeria 

Dharmendra Singh

Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Nigeria 

Jibrin N. Keta

Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Nigeria 

*Corresponding author: zubairusani1991@gmail.com

Abstract

This research work tries to examine the socioeconomic impact of Typha angustifolia L. grass in parts of Kebbi state (Aliero, Kashin Zama and Sabiyal), Nigeria. For better understanding of the field conditions with regards to the impact of the grass on the socioeconomic of the area (agriculture, fishing and the livelihood pattern), two hundred (200) questionnaires were designed and administered, out of which only One hundred and forty five (145) were returned. Findings from the questionnaire survey of some communities along river Aliero (Kashin Zama and Sabiyal) show that, there is general reduction in the flow of water in the river channel over the last few years. This was attributed to blockages by Typha angustifolia L. grass and silt deposits within the river channel. There is also reduced or loss of cultivation of some crops particularly irrigated crops such as millet, maize, rice, wheat and vegetables, fishing activities in the area is also affected by the grass. This situation is worst in Kashin Zama area, where many farmers reported that, before the emergence of Typha angustifolia grass in the area, they recorded 225bags of rice in 10hecter, and now only 60-65 bags where recorded in the same piece of land. Moreover, communities have tried communal and individual manual clearance of the Typha, while Aliero Local Government, Kebbi State and Federal Governments are also carrying out mechanical clearance work in the channel. All these efforts have little impact.

Keywords: Aliero, River, Nigeria, Typha angustifolia L.  Grass

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.48000

Conflicts of interest: None
Supporting agencies: None

Received 07.06.2022; Revised 19.08.2022; Accepted 28.08.2022

Cite This Article: Zubairu, Z.S., Singh, D., & Keta, J.N. (2022).  Typha angustifolia L. Grass Hindering against Agricultural Productivity in Aliero River, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management, 1(3), 339-343.

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Ecology and Bio-economics of Freshwater Apple Snail Pila globosa in Natore district of Bangladesh

Umme Habiba Shathi

Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh 

Md. Redwanur Rahman*

Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh 

*Corresponding author: redwan_rahman@ru.ac.bd

Abstract

Pila globosa is an economically and commercially valued snail used as food in aquaculture, medicine, and food item in many regions of Bangladesh and other countries. The current study examines the ecology of Pila globosa and determines their current bio-economic situation. Pila globosa were collected from Singra, Lalpur and, Bagatipara upazila of Natore district. It was found 1.5-fold decline of the snail population in the study areas. Pila globosa is an ecological element that actively contributes to preserving a healthy aquatic habitat, which is necessary for biodiversity preservation. On the one hand, snail fauna scientific management is out of date. On the other hand, Pila globosa is still being exploited for fish culture, providing the underprivileged with a means of subsistence and the country with foreign income. By easing pressure on the natural population, the scenario justifies the development of supplemental Pila globosa culture techniques for commercial use.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Biodiversity, Bio-economics, Ecology, Pila globosa

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.47999

Conflicts of interest: None
Supporting agencies: None

Received 05.06.2022; Revised 19.08.2022; Accepted 29.08.2022

Cite This Article: Shathi, U.H., & Rahman, M.R. (2022). Ecology and Bio-economics of Freshwater Apple Snail Pila globosa in Natore district of Bangladesh. Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management, 1(3), 332-338. doi: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.47999


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© The Author(s) 2022. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.



Saturday, 3 September 2022

Rainfall and Temperature Perception among Farmers in India: A Study of Bundelkhand Region

Surendra Singh Jatav*

Department of Economics, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India

*Corresponding author: surendra.singh735@gmail.com 

Abstract

Climate change has impacted the crop yield and affected the livelihoods of the farmers. Using a systematic random sampling technique, 200 samples were collected from two districts, viz., Jhansi and Jalaun of Bundelkhand region, India from September to November 2017, while rainfall and temperature data were collected from 1969 to 2017 from the Indian Meteorological Department of India to find the link between farmers’ perception on rainfall & temperature, and district’s rainfall and temperature pattern in long-term. Different statistical tools such as the Man Kendall test was employed to examine the rainfall and temperature trends, while the Breusch-Pagan test was used to check heteroscedasticity in the model. Further, the binary logistic regression model was also used to examine the determinants of farmers’ perceptions using socioeconomic variables. The results confirm based on the majority of the farmers’ perception that temperature has increased, while rainfall has declined. These results are in a similar line with the district’s rainfall and temperature trends. The regression results suggest that gender, education, and access to toilets are less likely to influence the farmers’ perception of climate change, while age, income, and access to electricity are significantly likely to influence the farmers’ perception of climate change. Hence, policy should be implemented to enhance rural farming communities’ awareness of climate change by providing training and creating awareness

Keywords: Agriculture, Binary logistic model, Climate adaptation, Climate change, Mann kendall, Rainfed, Vulnerability 

DOIhttps://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.47997

Conflicts of interest: None
Supporting agencies: None

Received 02.06.2022; Revised 03.08.2022; Accepted 22.08.2022

Cite This Article: Jatav, S.S. (2022).  Rainfall and Temperature Perception among Farmers in India: A Study of Bundelkhand Region. Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management, 1(3), 321-331doi: https://doi.org/10.3126/josem.v1i3.47997

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