Tuesday, 17 May 2022

Pattu Weaving: A Sustainable Fabric Manufacturing Technique

Ankita Srivastava

National Institute of Fashion Technology-Jodhpur-Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India

Ankur Saxena

National Institute of Fashion Technology-Jodhpur-Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India 

*Corresponding author: ankita.srivastava@nift.ac.in

Abstract

Sustainability is the need of the hour and the world is now looking for the environment-friendly options while choosing the materials, techniques, processes and disposal systems. In textiles, handloom weaving is considered as the sustainable way of fabric manufacturing. Many ancient crafts clusters are still existing and re-inventing themselves to create sustainable products. The craft of ‘Pattu weaving’ is one of them which is known as a traditional weaving technique. Pattu weaving is a traditional craft using extra weft weaving technique which is widely practised by the weavers in India. The study has reviewed the materials, tools, techniques and processes used in this craft, along with the challenges and opportunities for the upliftment of the craft. A comparative study of traditional and contemporary materials, colour palette, motifs and product range of the craft are also covered in this paper. Major part of the information and images have been collected during craft research documentation activity while visiting the craft cluster at Bhojasar and Karwa villages in Rajasthan where Pattu craft has been practiced by the weavers since ages. Along with this, secondary research has also been included in this document to strengthen the study.

Measurement of Activity Concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in Commercial Wall Paints Used in Nigeria and Inherent Radiological Hazards

E. O. Echeweozo

Department of Physics with Electronics, Evangel University Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

G.M. Onwunyiriuwa

Department of Physics with Electronics, Evangel University Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

P. A. Nwigwe

Department of Physics with Electronics, Evangel University Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: eugeneozo@evangeluniversity.edu.ng 

Abstract

Ionizing radiations from building materials portend serious health risk to atoms and molecules of body cells by damaging tissues and altering the DNA in genes. In this study, the measurement of radioactivity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th to determine inherent radiological hazards in major brands of commercial wall paints used in Nigeria was carried out. Twenty paint samples were selected based on the popularity and quantity of sales of these paints’ brands as obtained from oral interview with these paints’ marketers. A NaI (Tl) detector (76×76 mm) was employed in the measurements. High mean levels of the radioactivity of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were observed in emulsion paints 174.73, 58.18 and 56.98 Bq/kg while oil paints gave lower values of 119.66, 44.66 and 37.86 Bq/kg for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th respectively. From results obtained, most of the emulsion and oil paints available in Nigeria present low level of radioactivity concentration which does not pose significant radiological risk to user population. However, average excess lifetime cancer risk of these paints gave a value higher than the recommended limit. Based on this, regulation, quality control and constant monitoring of raw materials used for paint production in Nigeria is highly advised.


Effects of Palm Leaf Ash and Palm Kernel Fibre on Properties of Compressed Laterite Earth Brick

Jude K.

Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

Igwe, C. O.

Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

Mohammed B. M.

Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: kolojudea1@gmail.com 

Abstract

This study was designed to compare the effects of the properties of compressed laterite earth brick (CLEB) stabilized with palm leaf ash (PKA) and palm kernel fiber (KPF). The study was carried out in Building Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Bricks of 222×110×70 were produced using manual pressed machine where nine bricks each were stabilized with palm kernel fiber for 1%, 2%, and 3%. Also 9 bricks each were stabilized with palm leaf ash for each percent 5%, 10% and 15%. The materials used were Palm Kernel Fiber, Palm Leaf Ash laterite soil, and water. The abrasion resistance test and water penetration test were carried out. The findings revealed that the water penetration rate for the CLEB bricks stabilized with PKF recorded average penetration rate of 10.18 at 1%, 11.52 at 2% and 12.19 at 3%. Only 3% produced higher penetration rate while CLEB stabilized with PLA recorded average water penetration rate of 11.58 at 5%, 10.63 at 10%, and 11.27 at 15%. All were in conformity with NBRRI specification of 12.5%. The abrasion resistance of the 28 day CLEB stabilized with PKF recorded average abrasion of 1.40 at 1%, 1.28 at 2% and 3.68 at 3%. All result were conformity with the NBBRI specification of 6.9. While the abrasion resistance of the 28 day CLEB stabilized with PLA recorded average abrasion of 2.39 at 5%, 2.22 at 10% and 2.32 at 15% which were in conformity with the NBBRI specification of 6.9. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the CLEB stabilized with palm kernel fiber at  1% and 2% are in conformity with NBRRI specification of compressive strength, water absorption rate and abrasion resistance. While compressed laterite bricks stabilized with palm leaf ash should be improve to conform to NBRRI specification.

Role of Isolates of Bacillus Species for Biodegradation of Multiple Contaminants

Jyoti Sarwan*

University Institute of Biotechnology, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab, India 

Jagadeesh Chandra Bose K

University Institute of Biotechnology, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab, India 

*Corresponding author: jyoti.r48@cumail.in 

Abstract

Nature is the precious gift for every organism on the earth but, only few species making benefits of it and rest are suffering from scarcity of natural resources because of over exploitations. Nowadays, numbers of hazardous pollutants persisting in environment that are highly required to vanish for sustain natural resources for longer period. To overcome these pollutants researchers introduced bioremediation with microorganisms. Although there are large numbers of microbial species to degrade pollutants but according to recent researches Bacillus is more prominent among all bacterial species. Researchers have proved with their analysis, Bacillus are more safer and cheaper source for conserving environment and reduce toxics from environment.


Monday, 16 May 2022

Appraisal of Socio-economic, Infrastructural and Environmental Impacts of Flood in Makurdi Local Government Ares of Benue State, Nigeria

Tertese Peter Ikyapa*

Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 

Adnan Abdulhamid

Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 

Tasi’u Yalwa Rilwanu

Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 

Mala Muhammed Daura

Department of Geography, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria 

Philip Aondosoor Alogo

Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: ikyapapeter@gmail.com 

Abstract

Among the common natural hazards experienced in the world today, flood is said to be the most devastating in terms of the area covered and frequency of occurrence. Floods cause serious damage to lives and properties, disrupt economic activities, and, in turn, threaten the sustainable development of human settlements. In Nigeria, flooding has become a recurring phenomenon, sometimes with devastating effects. This study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic, infrastructural, and environmental impacts of floods in Makurdi Local Government Area (LGA). A non-probability sampling technique involving the use of a well-structured questionnaire was adopted in obtaining the required information. Purposive random sampling was used to select four hundred (400) flood victims from the nine (9) local wards bordering the Benue River. Analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and the findings were presented in tables and charts using percentages. The result showed that floods have a huge impact on the community, with greater damage 44% recorded on socio-economic activities (farming, marketing, and administration), followed by a 32% impact on infrastructural facilities (roads, hospitals, and schools), and a relatively lower impact 24% recorded on environmental variables (water, land, and vegetation). An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test conducted on these revealed that there is a significant variation in the impact created by floods on the study variables. Flood mitigation and preparedness plans were found to be the leading challenges to long-term flood disaster management in the area. The paper calls for collaborative efforts from residents, flood disaster management agencies, or stakeholders to reduce the impact and improve decisions towards ameliorating the menace of floods in the area. The evidence in this paper seeks to promote actions toward combating flooding and improving flood disaster management in Nigeria.

Integrated Management of Construction and Demolition Waste as Key Factor of Urban Circular Economy

Samourkasidou Elena

Department of Urban Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Kitis Konstantinos

Environmental Engineer, M.Eng. Systems Engineering and Management, Greece

Gkiouzepas Giorgos

Research and Policy Department, PlanO2 Consulting, Thessaloniki, Greece

*Corresponding author: e.samourkasidou@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper has highlighted the importance of implementing a comprehensive action plan to promote the circular economy at municipal level using as a case study of the municipality of Kavala in the management of construction and demolition waste. There is a strong interest in this particular sector due to the significant building stock that requires demolition and also the pressures to the municipal waste management services due to the small-scale renovations of mainly short-term tourist accommodation. This study was conducted to understand the impact of an integrated strategic circular economy approach to urban sustainable development and resilience. To identify this correlation, the upper strategy was analyzed in its partial components and key pillars following the four-helix model while a link with the broader theoretical framework was formulated. Of particular added value is the underlining of the barriers and weaknesses identified during the planning process, which can act as a pilot in all corresponding Greek medium-sized cities. The results suggest that the integrated management of construction and demolition waste, which comprises actions at all distinct stages (raising awareness, planning, implementation and monitoring) have a positive impact on achieving the SDGs and in creating conditions for urban resilience. However, a quantitative assessment is recommended in order to evaluate through specific indicators when this strategy moves into the implementation phase.

Analysis of Environmental Impact and Waste Management of Egg Poultry Industry in the Philippines: A Case of San Jose, Batangas

 Ramces M. Dili

College of Political Science and Public Administration, Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippines

Ruthra Mae B. Kalaw

College of Political Science and Public Administration, Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippines

Anne Dominique L. Miguel

College of Political Science and Public Administration, Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippines

Gloria M. Ting

College of Political Science and Public Administration, Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Manila, Philippines

*Corresponding author: rmdili@pup.edu.ph 

Abstract

The poultry industry produces a lot of waste, and environmental issues grow as the egg industry expands. Poultry owners in the Philippines, notably in San Jose, Batangas, face numerous waste management concerns. This study examined these issues as well as their environmental safety policies. San Jose, in Batangas province, is renowned as "The Egg Basket of the Philippines" for its large-scale egg production. This study collected data using qualitative descriptive analysis. The poultry farms in the municipality were about 376 as of 2021, but with no definite total number of poultry owners. Interviews with the municipal agriculturist and ten poultry owners was utilized. The study revealed substantial waste management difficulties such as manure disposal, water and air pollution, odor disturbance and insects, weather conditions, and virus outbreaks (bird flu). The study's concerning SDGs were 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production). Waste disposal over the past decades still poses a threat to the environment. The local government adopted poultry ordinances/resolutions: Resolution 164 of 2008, Resolution 341 of 2016, and Resolution 348 of 2016/Ordinance 007 series of 2016. These policies and initiatives were concluded to be environmentally friendly, but most poultry owners lack awareness of the said policies. Awareness is vital for better policy responses, and the municipality needs to develop its information dissemination. It is essential to improve waste management policies and farm monitoring methods. The local government should implement concrete socioeconomic and environmental programs to empower residents and poultry owners, especially the younger generation, and improve the municipality's knowledge of waste management techniques.


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